Navigation öffnen

Argentina

Biodiversity - Intact Forest Landscapes

Content

The Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) are defined as large unbroken expanses of natural ecosystems in the zone of current forest landscapes extent without signs of significant human activity. For the identification of Intact Forest Landscapes the following criteria were used: (1) minimum area of 50,000 hectares; (2) minimum IFL patch width of 10 km; and (3) minimum corridor/appendage width of 2 km. The criteria were chosen to insure that IFL patch core areas are large enough to provide refuge for wide-ranging animal species.
The IFL map shows the boundary between unaltered forest landscapes - where most components, including species and site diversity, dynamics and ecological functions remain intact - and altered or fragmented forests - where some level of timber extraction, species composition change, anthropogenic fragmentation and/or alteration of ecosystem dynamics has taken place.
The IFL map is prepared by the IFL Mapping Team (Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute, Transparent World, and WWF Russia) using Landsat satellite imagery for the year 2000. The latest update was made for year 2014, so the current map shows the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013.

Data source

Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2).

Data quality

The current IFL map shows the the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The first global IFL map was prepared in 2005-2006. It was updated in 2012 and again in 2014.

Data format

The IFL map is provided in ESRI shapefile format and can be downloaded at intactforest.org.

Availability of data

GRAS uses IFL data in agreement with Peter Potapov (IFL mapping team).

Biodiversity - Ramsar Sites

Content

Ramsar Sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".
In 1971 the Convention was established as an intergovernmental environmental agreement in the Iranian city Ramsar. Its mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. The Contracting Parties designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance. Wetlands included in the List acquire a new status at the national level and are recognized by the international community as being of significant value. The Ramsar List is maintained by the Ramsar Secretariat and is updated and extended continuously. Full data submitted by the Parties for each of their Ramsar Sites is maintained in the Ramsar Sites Database and searchable from the Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar Sites are explicitly named in the EU Renewable Energy Directive as being taken into account when identifiying areas not suitable for sustainable biomass production (Directive 2009/28/EC, Nr. 73).

Data source

Ramsar Convention Secretariat: Ramsar Sites Information Service Database, Official Ramsar sites boundaries, December 2013 / Ramsar Sites central geographical coordinates, July 2014

Data quality

The List of Wetlands of International Importance and hence the data stored in the Ramsar Sites Information Service (RSIS) Database is updated continuously. On the RSIS data are available in two forms: Centroids and boundaries. In addition, GRAS received information on Ramsar Sites in some countries from national or international sources. That is why GRAS is displaying a combination of centroids and polygons of the Ramsar Sites coming from either the RSIS or national and international bodies.

Data format

The Ramsar Sites are provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the Ramsar Sites Information Service.

Availability of data

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat does not restrict the use of the geospatial data of Ramsar Sites. However, they recommend that the geospatial data is double-checked with the information sheets of Ramsar Sites.

Biodiversity - Federal System of Protected Areas (SIFAP)

Content

The Argentinian Federal System of Protected Areas - Sistema Federal de Áreas Protegidas (SIFAP) shows legally protected areas in Argentina. It comprises international designations (Ramsar, Biosphere Reserves) as well as national designations:

Ramsar Sites
Ramsar sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".

Biosphere Reserves
Biosphere reserves included in SIFAP are recognized under UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme. Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use.

National Parks and Reserves
National Parks included in SIFAP are strictly protected and should be maintained in their natural state. National Reserves often serve as buffer zones to National Parks.

Provincial Protected Areas
Each province has specific area designations. The IUCN categories which are assigned to the designations give information about the stringency of protection.

Data Source

Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable de la Nación, Jefatura de Gabinete de Ministros - Presidencia de  la Nación, Grupo de Trabajo de Areas Protegidas, 2014.

Data quality

The data of Provincial Protected Areas is from 2014. The data of Ramsar Sites, Biosphere Reserves and National Parks and Reserves is from 2013. The data is updated regularly (at least annually). The protected areas have clearly defined borders which can be identified at any zoom level.

Data format

The data is provided to GRAS in shapefile format. On the website of Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable de la Nación protected areas can be viewed online.

Availability of data

The Argentinian Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development kindly forwarded the dataset to GRAS and permitted its use in GRAS.

Biodiversity - Land cover map Grassland, Forest and Peat

Content

The National Geographic Institute of Argentina (Instituto Geográfico Nacional República Argentina) provides a land cover map named „Coberturas del Suelo“ at a scale of 1: 250,000. On the basis of this map the sustainability relevant land cover classes, namely natural forest, artificial forest, natural grassland and peatland, have been extracted and displayed.

Data source

Instituto Geográfico Nacional República Argentina: Sistema de Información Geográfica, Base de datos geográfica „Coberturas del Suelo“, 2013.

Data quality

The land cover map is based on data from 2000 but is updated for the year 2013.

Data format

Data is provided in shapefile format and can be donwloaded on the website of Instituto Geográfico Nacional at http://www.ign.gob.ar/sig.

Availability of data

The dataset was recommended by the Argentinian Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development. The National Geographic Institute of Argentina does not restrict the use of the dataset, so it was implemented in GRAS.

Carbon Stock - Total Organic Carbon: Biomass carbon values

Values for carbon stored within natural biomass (above and below ground) are based on the biomass carbon map of Saatchi et al. 2011 (pixel of 30-arcsec ~900 m )  who derive forest biomass carbon based on a combination of forest height data derived from the ICESAT GLAS Lidar, landscape characteristics from optical and radar satellite imagery, and forest plots distributed over the region (data ~ year 2000). Carbon values for non-natural vegetation are based on the EC guidelines for the calculation of land carbon stocks for the purpose of Annex V to Directive 2009/28/EC and the IPCC 2006:

  • Saatchi S, Harris NL, Brown S, Lefsky M, Mitchard ET, Salas W, Zutta BR, Buermann W, Lewis SL, Hagen S, Petrova S, White L, Silman M, Morel A.(2011). Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2011 Jun 14;108(24):9899-904. More information can be found at: http://carbon.jpl.nasa.gov
  • European Union (2011). Commission decision of 10 June 2010 on guidelines for the calculation of land carbon stocks for the purpose of Annex V to the Directive 2009/2008/EC.Official Journal of the European Union, L 151, 17 June 2010. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:151:0019:0041:EN:PDF
  • IPCC 2006, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories – Volume 4., Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). Hayama : Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

Carbon Stock - Total Biomass Carbon

This carbon map was developed by Ruesch and Gibbs and is a global map of biomass carbon stored in above and below ground living vegetation. It was created using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The authors followed the IPCC GPG Tier-1 method for estimating vegetation carbon stocks using the globally consistent default values provided for above ground biomass (IPCC 2006). They added below ground biomass (root) carbon stocks using the IPCC root to shoot ratios for each vegetation type. Then they converted total living vegetation biomass to carbon stocks using the carbon fraction for each vegetation type (varies between forests, shrublands and grasslands). Maps of continental regions, ecofloristic zones, and frontier forests were combined to determine the spatial distribution of global carbon zones. These data were then gridded and combined with the vegetation map from the Global Land Cover 2000 Project (GLC2000). The resulting global gridded dataset depicts vegetation biomass carbon stocks at at 1 kilometer by 1-kilometer resolution.
Soil carbon stocks are not included in this map.

Social Indices - Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year in cooperation with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide, the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The GHI wants to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger and aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger. GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number that can however be individually displayed in the maps:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient calorie intake)
  • Child underweight: the proportion of children younger than the age of five who are underweight (low weight for age reflecting wasting, stunted growth, or both), which is one indicator of child undernourishment
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children younger than the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate dietary intake and unhealthy environments).

For further information please visit the GHI

Social Indices - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) by the World Bank Group reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2012 for six dimensions of governance:

  • Voice and Accountability
  • Political Stability and Absence of Violence
  • Government Effectiveness
  • Regulatory Quality
  • Rule of Law
  • Control of Corruption

These aggregate indicators can be individually displayed in GRAS Maps. The indicators combine the views of a large number of enterprise, citizen and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. They are based on 32 individual data sources produced by a variety of survey institutes, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private sector firms.

For further information please visit the WGI

Social Indices - Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme. The four tiers are:

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Mean years of schools
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Gross national income (GNI) per capita

The tiers can be individually displayed with their original numerical value in GRAS Maps.

For further information please visit the HDI

Social Indices - Global Slavery Index (GSI)

The Global Slavery Index is run by the Australian NGO Walk Free Foundation. GSI shows the prevalence of population in modern slavery and provides a country ranking of 162 countries. Modern slavery is defined as slavery and slavery-like practices (such as debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale or exploitation of children), human trafficking and forced labour. GSI uses renowned international and national data sources. The Index reflects a weighted combined measure of 3 factors:

1. Estimate prevalence of modern slavery in each country (accounts for 95% in the Index)
2. A measure of the level of human trafficking to and from each country (accounts for 2.5%)
3. A measure of the level of child and early marriage in each country (accounts for 2.5%)

The estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, country by country, is based on two types of information:

  • Secondary source information: published reports from governments, the investiga-tions of non-governmental and international organisations, and journalistic reports across all media (e.g. Stopping Forced Labor Report by ILO / Incidence of Bonded Labor in India by Lal Bahadur Shastri, National Academy of Administration)
  • Random sample surveys in selected countries

For further information please visit the GSI

Social Indices - EPI Agricultural Subsidies (EPI AS)

Agricultural Subsidies is a proxy measure for the degree of environmental pressure exerted by subsidizing agricultural inputs developed within the framework of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) from the University of Yale.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Agricultural Subsidies please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Pesticide Regulation (EPI PR)

Pesticide Regulation assesses the status of countries’ legislation regarding the use of chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Pesticide Regulation also scores the degree to which these countries have fol-lowed through on limiting or outlawing these chemicals.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Pesticide Regulation please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Water Resources (EPI WR)

This dataset was developed by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and is another worthwhile subindicator of the EPI. It represents a combination of environ-mental statistics reported from national ministries along with official statistics from the Or-ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Sta-tistical Division (UNSD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with inputs from the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook and additional expert advice.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Water Resources please visit the EPI

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Drinking Water (UNICEF WA)

Access to Drinking Water measures the proportion of a country’s total population with ac-cess to an “improved drinking water source” as a main source of drinking water. An im-proved drinking water source is defined as a facility or delivery point that protects water from external contamination—particularly fecal contamination. This includes piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected spring; and rainwater collection. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Sanitation (UNICEF WS)

Access to Sanitation measures the percentage of a country’s population that has access to an improved source of sanitation. “Improved” sanitation sources include connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, or ventilated pit latrine. The system is considered “improved” if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and is not public, meaning that it can neither be private or shared. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards

UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards are not a numerical index in the classical meaning. Ratification of the eight core labour standards are regarded as a worthwhile indicator for the assessment of working conditions. However, this information is not considered for the overall social factor calculation. The ratification of UN International Labor Organisation (ILO) Core Labor Standards is displayed within the maps tool as an additional information.

The core labour standards consist of four standards, laid out in eight conventions:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bar-gaining (Convention No. 87 & No. 98)
  • The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour (Convention No. 29 & No. 105)
  • The effective abolition of child labour (Convention No. 138 & No. 182)
  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation (Con-vention No. 100 & No. 111)

For further information please visit ILO

Brazil

Biodiversity - Intact Forest Landscapes

Content

The Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) are defined as large unbroken expanses of natural ecosystems in the zone of current forest landscapes extent without signs of significant human activity. For the identification of Intact Forest Landscapes the following criteria were used: (1) minimum area of 50,000 hectares; (2) minimum IFL patch width of 10 km; and (3) minimum corridor/appendage width of 2 km. The criteria were chosen to insure that IFL patch core areas are large enough to provide refuge for wide-ranging animal species.
The IFL map shows the boundary between unaltered forest landscapes - where most components, including species and site diversity, dynamics and ecological functions remain intact - and altered or fragmented forests - where some level of timber extraction, species composition change, anthropogenic fragmentation and/or alteration of ecosystem dynamics has taken place.
The IFL map is prepared by the IFL Mapping Team (Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute, Transparent World, and WWF Russia) using Landsat satellite imagery for the year 2000. The latest update was made for year 2014, so the current map shows the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013.

Data source

Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2).

Data quality

The current IFL map shows the the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The first global IFL map was prepared in 2005-2006. It was updated in 2012 and again in 2014.

Data format

The IFL map is provided in ESRI shapefile format and can be downloaded at intactforest.org.

Availability of data

GRAS uses IFL data in agreement with Peter Potapov (IFL mapping team).

Biodiversity - Ramsar Sites

Content

Ramsar Sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".
In 1971 the Convention was established as an intergovernmental environmental agreement in the Iranian city Ramsar. Its mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. The Contracting Parties designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance. Wetlands included in the List acquire a new status at the national level and are recognized by the international community as being of significant value. The Ramsar List is maintained by the Ramsar Secretariat and is updated and extended continuously. Full data submitted by the Parties for each of their Ramsar Sites is maintained in the Ramsar Sites Database and searchable from the Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar Sites are explicitly named in the EU Renewable Energy Directive as being taken into account when identifiying areas not suitable for sustainable biomass production (Directive 2009/28/EC, Nr. 73).

Data source

Ramsar Convention Secretariat: Ramsar Sites Information Service Database, Official Ramsar sites boundaries, December 2013 / Ramsar Sites central geographical coordinates, July 2014

Data quality

The List of Wetlands of International Importance and hence the data stored in the Ramsar Sites Information Service (RSIS) Database is updated continuously. On the RSIS data are available in two forms: Centroids and boundaries. In addition, GRAS received information on Ramsar Sites in some countries from national or international sources. That is why GRAS is displaying a combination of centroids and polygons of the Ramsar Sites coming from either the RSIS or national and international bodies.

Data format

The Ramsar Sites are provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the Ramsar Sites Information Service.

Availability of data

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat does not restrict the use of the geospatial data of Ramsar Sites. However, they recommend that the geospatial data is double-checked with the information sheets of Ramsar Sites.

Biodiversity - National System of Units of Conservation (SNUC)

Content

The National System of Units of Conservation - Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação da Natureza (SNUC) comprises nationally designated protected areas which are called units of conservation. The federal units of conservation are divided into two large groups according to their strictness of protection: Full protection and sustainable use.

National Full Protection Area
This category of national protected areas has as a primary purpose the reconciliation of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. These areas aim to ensure continuity of renewable natural resources considering ecologically, socially, and economically viability in a long term. The following designations belong to this category:

  • Ecological Station
  • Biological Reserve
  • National Park
  • Natural Monument
  • Wildlife Refuge


National Sustainable Use Area
This category of national protected areas is designated to retain natural areas and preserve them, wherever possible, from human interference. As a rule, only indirect use of natural resources is allowed, i.e. those that do not involve consumption, collection, damage or destruction. The following designations belong to this category:

  • Environmental Protection Area
  • Area of Relevant Ecological Interest
  • National Forest
  • Extractive Reserve
  • Fauna Reserve
  • Sustainable Development Area
  • Private Reserve of Natural Heritage


Private Reserve of Natural Heritage
Private Reserve of Natural Heritage is a protected area created by landowner’s initiative. The main objective of these areas is to conserve biodiversity while ownership of the land remains with the landowners. In this modality of unit of conservation only scientific research and visitation with tourist, recreation, and educational objectives are permitted.

Data source

ICMBIO (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade) - Ministério do Meio Ambiente

Data quality

The data of National Full Protection Areas, National Sustainable Use Areas and Private Reserves of Natural Heritage is from 2012. Data is updated regularly. The designated areas have clearly defined borders which can be identified at any zoom level.

Data format

Data is provided in shapefile format and can be donwloaded on the website of ICMBIO or on the website of the Ministry of Environment MMA.

Availability of data

The data was acquired and provided to GRAS by courtesy of our advisor TNC Brazil.

Biodiversity - PROBIO

Content

PROBIO (Projeto de Conservação e Utilização Sustentável da Diversidade Biológica Brasileira) is a mapping process to identify important areas for biodiversity conservation for each Brazilian biome (Amazon, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pantanal, Atlantic Forest and Pampas, Coastal and Marine). The process was organized by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment and several experts and organizations from different areas of knowledge (science, social and economic) were involved in the process. The analyses were based on systematic conservation planning principles involving standardized procedures, such as conservation target and goal definition. The final output of this process is a compiled map of important areas for biodiversity conservation. In this map each delimited area has a specific level of priority for biodiversity conservation: Extremely high, very high and high.

Data source

Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA): Revisão Áreas Prioritárias para Conservação da Biodiversidade (prioridade de ação) - 2007

Data quality

The current PROBIO map is from 2007. The first mapping process began in 2000 and the resulting "Priority Areas for Conservation, Sustainable Use and Benefit Sharing of Brazilian Biodiversity" were institutionalized in 2004. Due to new biological findings, a revision process took place and the new results were published in 2007. The areas in the PROBIO map have clearly defined borders which can be identified at any zoom level.

Data format

PROBIO data is provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded at http://mapas.mma.gov.br/i3geo/datadownload.htm

Availability of data

The data was acquired from the Brazilian Ministry of Environment and provided to GRAS by courtesy of our advisor TNC Brazil.

Carbon Stock - Total Biomass Carbon

This carbon map was developed by Ruesch and Gibbs and is a global map of biomass carbon stored in above and below ground living vegetation. It was created using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The authors followed the IPCC GPG Tier-1 method for estimating vegetation carbon stocks using the globally consistent default values provided for above ground biomass (IPCC 2006). They added below ground biomass (root) carbon stocks using the IPCC root to shoot ratios for each vegetation type. Then they converted total living vegetation biomass to carbon stocks using the carbon fraction for each vegetation type (varies between forests, shrublands and grasslands). Maps of continental regions, ecofloristic zones, and frontier forests were combined to determine the spatial distribution of global carbon zones. These data were then gridded and combined with the vegetation map from the Global Land Cover 2000 Project (GLC2000). The resulting global gridded dataset depicts vegetation biomass carbon stocks at at 1 kilometer by 1-kilometer resolution.
Soil carbon stocks are not included in this map.

Social Indices - Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year in cooperation with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide, the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The GHI wants to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger and aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger. GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number that can however be individually displayed in the maps:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient calorie intake)
  • Child underweight: the proportion of children younger than the age of five who are underweight (low weight for age reflecting wasting, stunted growth, or both), which is one indicator of child undernourishment
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children younger than the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate dietary intake and unhealthy environments).

For further information please visit the GHI

Social Indices - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) by the World Bank Group reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2012 for six dimensions of governance:

  • Voice and Accountability
  • Political Stability and Absence of Violence
  • Government Effectiveness
  • Regulatory Quality
  • Rule of Law
  • Control of Corruption

These aggregate indicators can be individually displayed in GRAS Maps. The indicators combine the views of a large number of enterprise, citizen and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. They are based on 32 individual data sources produced by a variety of survey institutes, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private sector firms.

For further information please visit the WGI

Social Indices - Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme. The four tiers are:

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Mean years of schools
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Gross national income (GNI) per capita

The tiers can be individually displayed with their original numerical value in GRAS Maps.

For further information please visit the HDI

Social Indices - Global Slavery Index (GSI)

The Global Slavery Index is run by the Australian NGO Walk Free Foundation. GSI shows the prevalence of population in modern slavery and provides a country ranking of 162 countries. Modern slavery is defined as slavery and slavery-like practices (such as debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale or exploitation of children), human trafficking and forced labour. GSI uses renowned international and national data sources. The Index reflects a weighted combined measure of 3 factors:

1. Estimate prevalence of modern slavery in each country (accounts for 95% in the Index)
2. A measure of the level of human trafficking to and from each country (accounts for 2.5%)
3. A measure of the level of child and early marriage in each country (accounts for 2.5%)

The estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, country by country, is based on two types of information:

  • Secondary source information: published reports from governments, the investiga-tions of non-governmental and international organisations, and journalistic reports across all media (e.g. Stopping Forced Labor Report by ILO / Incidence of Bonded Labor in India by Lal Bahadur Shastri, National Academy of Administration)
  • Random sample surveys in selected countries

For further information please visit the GSI

Social Indices - EPI Agricultural Subsidies (EPI AS)

Agricultural Subsidies is a proxy measure for the degree of environmental pressure exerted by subsidizing agricultural inputs developed within the framework of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) from the University of Yale.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Agricultural Subsidies please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Pesticide Regulation (EPI PR)

Pesticide Regulation assesses the status of countries’ legislation regarding the use of chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Pesticide Regulation also scores the degree to which these countries have fol-lowed through on limiting or outlawing these chemicals.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Pesticide Regulation please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Water Resources (EPI WR)

This dataset was developed by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and is another worthwhile subindicator of the EPI. It represents a combination of environ-mental statistics reported from national ministries along with official statistics from the Or-ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Sta-tistical Division (UNSD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with inputs from the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook and additional expert advice.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Water Resources please visit the EPI

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Drinking Water (UNICEF WA)

Access to Drinking Water measures the proportion of a country’s total population with ac-cess to an “improved drinking water source” as a main source of drinking water. An im-proved drinking water source is defined as a facility or delivery point that protects water from external contamination—particularly fecal contamination. This includes piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected spring; and rainwater collection. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Sanitation (UNICEF WS)

Access to Sanitation measures the percentage of a country’s population that has access to an improved source of sanitation. “Improved” sanitation sources include connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, or ventilated pit latrine. The system is considered “improved” if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and is not public, meaning that it can neither be private or shared. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards

UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards are not a numerical index in the classical meaning. Ratification of the eight core labour standards are regarded as a worthwhile indicator for the assessment of working conditions. However, this information is not considered for the overall social factor calculation. The ratification of UN International Labor Organisation (ILO) Core Labor Standards is displayed within the maps tool as an additional information.

The core labour standards consist of four standards, laid out in eight conventions:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bar-gaining (Convention No. 87 & No. 98)
  • The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour (Convention No. 29 & No. 105)
  • The effective abolition of child labour (Convention No. 138 & No. 182)
  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation (Con-vention No. 100 & No. 111)

For further information please visit ILO

Social Indices - Indigenous Area

Indigenous Areas are part of national territory owned by Brazilian Government and are inhabited by one or more indigenous people. These areas are essential for the physical and cultural reproduction of indigenous people according to their uses, customs and traditions. Federal Government owns these lands but is not allowed to sell neither purchase it. Indigenous lands are not created by a constitutive act; the administrative demarcation of indigenous lands is rather of declaratory nature. However, the indigenous peoples hold the original law and the exclusive land use right of the lands they traditionally occupy and the lands are recognized under the Federal Constitution of 1988.

Date of Content

2013

Source

FUNAI (Fundaçao Nacional do Índio) – Ministério da Justiça

Social Indices - Quilombola Area

Quilombola communities are ethnic and racial groups, predominantly constituted by rural or urban black population, which define themselves as of their relationships with the land, kinship, territory, ancestry, traditions and own cultural practices. They are endowed with specific territorial relations because of their black ancestry related to the resistance to historical oppression. The national land planning institute INCRA (Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária) holds the competence for the delimitation of the lands of Quilombo communities, as well as for the determination of their boundaries and titles.

Date of Content

2013

Source

INCRA (Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária) – Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário

Canada

Biodiversity - Intact Forest Landscapes

Content

The Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) are defined as large unbroken expanses of natural ecosystems in the zone of current forest landscapes extent without signs of significant human activity. For the identification of Intact Forest Landscapes the following criteria were used: (1) minimum area of 50,000 hectares; (2) minimum IFL patch width of 10 km; and (3) minimum corridor/appendage width of 2 km. The criteria were chosen to insure that IFL patch core areas are large enough to provide refuge for wide-ranging animal species.
The IFL map shows the boundary between unaltered forest landscapes - where most components, including species and site diversity, dynamics and ecological functions remain intact - and altered or fragmented forests - where some level of timber extraction, species composition change, anthropogenic fragmentation and/or alteration of ecosystem dynamics has taken place.
The IFL map is prepared by the IFL Mapping Team (Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute, Transparent World, and WWF Russia) using Landsat satellite imagery for the year 2000. The latest update was made for year 2014, so the current map shows the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013.

Data source

Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2).

Data quality

The current IFL map shows the the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The first global IFL map was prepared in 2005-2006. It was updated in 2012 and again in 2014.

Data format

The IFL map is provided in ESRI shapefile format and can be downloaded at intactforest.org.

Availability of data

GRAS uses IFL data in agreement with Peter Potapov (IFL mapping team).

Biodiversity - Ramsar Sites

Content

Ramsar Sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".
In 1971 the Convention was established as an intergovernmental environmental agreement in the Iranian city Ramsar. Its mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. The Contracting Parties designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance. Wetlands included in the List acquire a new status at the national level and are recognized by the international community as being of significant value. The Ramsar List is maintained by the Ramsar Secretariat and is updated and extended continuously. Full data submitted by the Parties for each of their Ramsar Sites is maintained in the Ramsar Sites Database and searchable from the Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar Sites are explicitly named in the EU Renewable Energy Directive as being taken into account when identifiying areas not suitable for sustainable biomass production (Directive 2009/28/EC, Nr. 73).

Data source

Ramsar Convention Secretariat: Ramsar Sites Information Service Database, Official Ramsar sites boundaries, December 2013 / Ramsar Sites central geographical coordinates, July 2014

Data quality

The List of Wetlands of International Importance and hence the data stored in the Ramsar Sites Information Service (RSIS) Database is updated continuously. On the RSIS data are available in two forms: Centroids and boundaries. In addition, GRAS received information on Ramsar Sites in some countries from national or international sources. That is why GRAS is displaying a combination of centroids and polygons of the Ramsar Sites coming from either the RSIS or national and international bodies.

Data format

The Ramsar Sites are provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the Ramsar Sites Information Service.

Availability of data

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat does not restrict the use of the geospatial data of Ramsar Sites. However, they recommend that the geospatial data is double-checked with the information sheets of Ramsar Sites.

Biodiversity - Canada's Protected Areas (CARTS)

Content

The Conservation Areas Reporting and Tracking System (CARTS) is a database provided by the Canadian Council on Ecological Areas (CCEA) that contains spatial and attribution data about Canadian protected areas. Protected Areas are defined and classified according to the international IUCN standards agreed to by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). In GRAS the protected areas are grouped and displayed according to their IUCN categories: Canada's Protected Areas IUCN I-III and Canada's Protected Areas IUCN IV-VI.
CARTS data are from federal, provincial and territorial governments, and some non-government organisations that own, administer, and/or manage areas for the protection of biodiversity using legal or other effective means. The Canadian Council on Ecological Areas (CCEA), which administers CARTS, is a non-profit organization and fulfils the role for the reporting of Canada‘s protected areas.

Data source

Canadian Council on Ecological Areas, 2013

Data quality

The current CARTS dataset is from end 2013. Data is updated at least annually but usually on a six month cycle. The protected areas have clearly defined borders which can be identified at any zoom level.

Data format

Data is provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the website of CCEA.

Availability of data

GRAS uses CARTS data in agreement with CCEA.

Carbon Stock - Total Biomass Carbon

This carbon map was developed by Ruesch and Gibbs and is a global map of biomass carbon stored in above and below ground living vegetation. It was created using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The authors followed the IPCC GPG Tier-1 method for estimating vegetation carbon stocks using the globally consistent default values provided for above ground biomass (IPCC 2006). They added below ground biomass (root) carbon stocks using the IPCC root to shoot ratios for each vegetation type. Then they converted total living vegetation biomass to carbon stocks using the carbon fraction for each vegetation type (varies between forests, shrublands and grasslands). Maps of continental regions, ecofloristic zones, and frontier forests were combined to determine the spatial distribution of global carbon zones. These data were then gridded and combined with the vegetation map from the Global Land Cover 2000 Project (GLC2000). The resulting global gridded dataset depicts vegetation biomass carbon stocks at at 1 kilometer by 1-kilometer resolution.
Soil carbon stocks are not included in this map.

Carbon Stock - Peatlands of Canada and Total Organic Carbon Content

The Peatlands of Canada database was developed in 2005 (Tarnocai et al., 2005) by updating the 2000 version of the database (Tarnocai et al., 2000) using new spatial and site data together with updated information from the peatland component of the Soil Organic Carbon Database (Tarnocai and Lacelle, 1996). The Soil Landscapes of Canada database was the primary source of information for the Atlantic Provinces, Quebec, Ontario, the Yukon, and parts of British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Information for the Prairie Provinces was obtained primarily from Vitt et al. (1995), Halsey and Vitt (1997), Halsey et al. (1997), and Vitt et al. (2000). The database contains information about peatlands in Canada and total organic carbon content in kg/m2.

Peatlands of Canada
Peatlands are defined as wetlands with massive deposits of peat that are at least 40 cm thick including the four classes of peat - bog, fen, swamp or marsh. Peatlands are dominant features of the Canadian landscape and cover approximately 13% of the land area. These peatlands are essential to the global environment because they retain, purify and deliver fresh water, store carbon, absorb pollutants and support numerous species of plants and wildlife, many of them are identified as endangered. The peatland map integrated in GRAS marks any area with a peatland percentage higher than 80%. The peat deposit in Canada has highly variable thickness. Some areas with a large extent of peatlands, could be associated with shallow peat (< 1m). For these peatlands, the TOCC (kg/m2) is small. This is why, the Total Organic Carbon Content map and the Peatlands of Canada map do not define the same areas as being relevant carbon storages.  

Total Organic Carbon Content in Soil
The total organic carbon content of one polygon is a measure of the average amount of soil organic carbon of the total depth of the soil found in the land area of a soil landscape polygon. Soil landscape polygons represent particular soil and landform features and are the most detailed spatial entities within the ecological hierarchy employed in Canada (National Soil Database, 1996). The soil organic carbon contents (OCC) were calculated using data on peat thickness (T), bulk density (BD) and organic carbon (C%). The data were entered in three layers based on information in the database. The first layer represents the uppermost 0 to 25 cm for fens and marshes and 0 to 50 cm for bogs and swamps. The second layer is the remaining basal peat and the third is the organic-rich mineral layer underlying the basal peat. The OCC was then calculated for each layer using the formula OCC = C% x BD x T. For the surface organic carbon content (SOCC) T = 30 cm, for 0-100 cm (MOCC) T = 100, and for the total organic carbon content (TOCC) T is the total depth of the three layers. Each of these values was aggregated for each peat polygon in the database:

  • Tarnocai, C., I.M. Kettles and B. Lacelle. 2011. Peatlands of Canada; Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6561 (digital database). Download at Natural Resources Canada

Social Indices - Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year in cooperation with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide, the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The GHI wants to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger and aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger. GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number that can however be individually displayed in the maps:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient calorie intake)
  • Child underweight: the proportion of children younger than the age of five who are underweight (low weight for age reflecting wasting, stunted growth, or both), which is one indicator of child undernourishment
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children younger than the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate dietary intake and unhealthy environments).

For further information please visit the GHI

Social Indices - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) by the World Bank Group reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2012 for six dimensions of governance:

  • Voice and Accountability
  • Political Stability and Absence of Violence
  • Government Effectiveness
  • Regulatory Quality
  • Rule of Law
  • Control of Corruption

These aggregate indicators can be individually displayed in GRAS Maps. The indicators combine the views of a large number of enterprise, citizen and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. They are based on 32 individual data sources produced by a variety of survey institutes, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private sector firms.

For further information please visit the WGI

Social Indices - Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme. The four tiers are:

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Mean years of schools
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Gross national income (GNI) per capita

The tiers can be individually displayed with their original numerical value in GRAS Maps.

For further information please visit the HDI

Social Indices - Global Slavery Index (GSI)

The Global Slavery Index is run by the Australian NGO Walk Free Foundation. GSI shows the prevalence of population in modern slavery and provides a country ranking of 162 countries. Modern slavery is defined as slavery and slavery-like practices (such as debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale or exploitation of children), human trafficking and forced labour. GSI uses renowned international and national data sources. The Index reflects a weighted combined measure of 3 factors:

1. Estimate prevalence of modern slavery in each country (accounts for 95% in the Index)
2. A measure of the level of human trafficking to and from each country (accounts for 2.5%)
3. A measure of the level of child and early marriage in each country (accounts for 2.5%)

The estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, country by country, is based on two types of information:

  • Secondary source information: published reports from governments, the investiga-tions of non-governmental and international organisations, and journalistic reports across all media (e.g. Stopping Forced Labor Report by ILO / Incidence of Bonded Labor in India by Lal Bahadur Shastri, National Academy of Administration)
  • Random sample surveys in selected countries

For further information please visit the GSI

Social Indices - EPI Agricultural Subsidies (EPI AS)

Agricultural Subsidies is a proxy measure for the degree of environmental pressure exerted by subsidizing agricultural inputs developed within the framework of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) from the University of Yale.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Agricultural Subsidies please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Pesticide Regulation (EPI PR)

Pesticide Regulation assesses the status of countries’ legislation regarding the use of chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Pesticide Regulation also scores the degree to which these countries have fol-lowed through on limiting or outlawing these chemicals.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Pesticide Regulation please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Water Resources (EPI WR)

This dataset was developed by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and is another worthwhile subindicator of the EPI. It represents a combination of environ-mental statistics reported from national ministries along with official statistics from the Or-ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Sta-tistical Division (UNSD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with inputs from the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook and additional expert advice.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Water Resources please visit the EPI

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Drinking Water (UNICEF WA)

Access to Drinking Water measures the proportion of a country’s total population with ac-cess to an “improved drinking water source” as a main source of drinking water. An im-proved drinking water source is defined as a facility or delivery point that protects water from external contamination—particularly fecal contamination. This includes piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected spring; and rainwater collection. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Sanitation (UNICEF WS)

Access to Sanitation measures the percentage of a country’s population that has access to an improved source of sanitation. “Improved” sanitation sources include connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, or ventilated pit latrine. The system is considered “improved” if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and is not public, meaning that it can neither be private or shared. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards

UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards are not a numerical index in the classical meaning. Ratification of the eight core labour standards are regarded as a worthwhile indicator for the assessment of working conditions. However, this information is not considered for the overall social factor calculation. The ratification of UN International Labor Organisation (ILO) Core Labor Standards is displayed within the maps tool as an additional information.

The core labour standards consist of four standards, laid out in eight conventions:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bar-gaining (Convention No. 87 & No. 98)
  • The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour (Convention No. 29 & No. 105)
  • The effective abolition of child labour (Convention No. 138 & No. 182)
  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation (Con-vention No. 100 & No. 111)

For further information please visit ILO

Indonesia

Biodiversity - Intact Forest Landscapes

Content

The Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) are defined as large unbroken expanses of natural ecosystems in the zone of current forest landscapes extent without signs of significant human activity. For the identification of Intact Forest Landscapes the following criteria were used: (1) minimum area of 50,000 hectares; (2) minimum IFL patch width of 10 km; and (3) minimum corridor/appendage width of 2 km. The criteria were chosen to insure that IFL patch core areas are large enough to provide refuge for wide-ranging animal species.
The IFL map shows the boundary between unaltered forest landscapes - where most components, including species and site diversity, dynamics and ecological functions remain intact - and altered or fragmented forests - where some level of timber extraction, species composition change, anthropogenic fragmentation and/or alteration of ecosystem dynamics has taken place.
The IFL map is prepared by the IFL Mapping Team (Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute, Transparent World, and WWF Russia) using Landsat satellite imagery for the year 2000. The latest update was made for year 2014, so the current map shows the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013.

Data source

Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2).

Data quality

The current IFL map shows the the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The first global IFL map was prepared in 2005-2006. It was updated in 2012 and again in 2014.

Data format

The IFL map is provided in ESRI shapefile format and can be downloaded at intactforest.org.

Availability of data

GRAS uses IFL data in agreement with Peter Potapov (IFL mapping team).

Biodiversity - Ramsar Sites

Content

Ramsar Sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".
In 1971 the Convention was established as an intergovernmental environmental agreement in the Iranian city Ramsar. Its mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. The Contracting Parties designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance. Wetlands included in the List acquire a new status at the national level and are recognized by the international community as being of significant value. The Ramsar List is maintained by the Ramsar Secretariat and is updated and extended continuously. Full data submitted by the Parties for each of their Ramsar Sites is maintained in the Ramsar Sites Database and searchable from the Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar Sites are explicitly named in the EU Renewable Energy Directive as being taken into account when identifiying areas not suitable for sustainable biomass production (Directive 2009/28/EC, Nr. 73).

Data source

Ramsar Convention Secretariat: Ramsar Sites Information Service Database, Official Ramsar sites boundaries, December 2013 / Ramsar Sites central geographical coordinates, July 2014

Data quality

The List of Wetlands of International Importance and hence the data stored in the Ramsar Sites Information Service (RSIS) Database is updated continuously. On the RSIS data are available in two forms: Centroids and boundaries. In addition, GRAS received information on Ramsar Sites in some countries from national or international sources. That is why GRAS is displaying a combination of centroids and polygons of the Ramsar Sites coming from either the RSIS or national and international bodies.

Data format

The Ramsar Sites are provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the Ramsar Sites Information Service.

Availability of data

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat does not restrict the use of the geospatial data of Ramsar Sites. However, they recommend that the geospatial data is double-checked with the information sheets of Ramsar Sites.

Biodiversity - Land Cover and Critical Areas

Content

The Directorate of Environmental and Forestry Spatial Planning of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry provides maps comprising land cover classes and information about designated areas:

  • Primary Forest: Primary forests are forests that have attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibit unique ecological features. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem.
  • Primary Forest, Reserved Forest
  • Protected Forest: A protected forest area has as its principal function the protection of ecosystems services to manage the water, preventing floods, controlling erosion, preventing sea water intrusion, and maintain soil fertility.
  • Production Forest: Production forest should be maintained as forest area and serves to generate consumption of forest products for the benefit of the community, industry and export. This forest is usually located within the boundaries of a concession (HPH licensed) and managed to produce timber. With proper management, logging level is offset by the planting and forest re-growth that continues to produce sustainable timber. In practical terms, the forests in the concession area is often excessive and sometimes logged cleared.
  • Limited Production Forest: Limited Production Forest is a forest that can only be exploited by means of selective logging. Limited Production Forest are meant for timber production with low intensity. This limited production forests are generally located in the mountainous region where steep slopes complicate logging operation.
  • Convertible Production Forest: Convertible Production Forests are designated for long-term non-forestry uses e.g. conversion for estate crops, smallholdings, future agricultural use.
  • Nature Reserve Area and Nature Conservation: A nature reserve comprises forests with a particular characteristic, which has as a principal function the conservation of plant and animal diversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services.
  • Nature Reserve Area and Marine Nature Conservation: Nature Reserves designated to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services including marine and coastal areas.
  • Peatland: Nature Reserves designated to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services including marine and coastal areas. This layer is displayed in the Indonesian Carbon Stock section of the GRAS tool.


The Directorate of Environmental and Forestry Spatial Planning of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry has identified critical areas inside protected forest areas as well as on cultivation areas. The criticality is related to the degree of degradation of the land. Very critical areas are already highly degraded so that they cannot maintain their productivity or the provision of ecosystem services. The parameters to classify critical areas inside protected forest areas are based on vegetation density (weighting 5 %), slope (weighting 20%), erosion rate (weighted 20%), and land management (weighting 10%). The parameterst o classify critical areas on cultivation areas are based on productivity of the land productivity (weighting 30%) , slope (weighting 20%), erosion rate (weighting 15%), rock outcrop (5%), and land management (weighting 30%). The critical areas are classified according to five different classes of criticality:

  • Not critical
  • Critical potential
  • Moderately critical
  • Critical
  • Very critical

Additionally, the Directorate of Environmental and Forestry Spatial Planning of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry has created two different land cover map in the years 2009 and 2011 which divide the country into: Primary dryland forest, secondary dryland forest, primary mangrove forest, secondary mangrove forest, primary swamp forest, secondary swamp forest, plantation forest, swamp shrub, bush/shrub, drylands agriculture, shurb-mixed dryland farm, rice field, fish pond, estate crop plantation, settlement area, transmigration area, barren land, cloud covered, grassland, mining area.  

Data source

Directorate of Environmental and Forestry Spatial Planning of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Data quality

The land cover map is from 2009 and 2011. It is based on Landsat 7 ETM and has a resolution of 30 meters. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level.

Data format

The datasets of Land Cover and Critical Areas are provided as kml files and can be downloaded on the website of the Directorate of Environmental and Forestry Spatial Planning of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry. In order to integrate the data into GRAS, data was transformed into vector file format.

Availability of data

Data are freely available to the public on the website of the Directorate of Environmental and Forestry Spatial Planning of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Biodiversity - Orangutan habitats

Content

The map shows a modelled orangutan spatial distribution for Borneo and Sumatra. The map was prepared based on species occurrence samples as well as contextual layers. The contextual layers included climatic, topographic, soil, above ground carbon stock, land cover and road density maps.

In Borneo, the modelled orangutan distribution map covers 155,106 km2 (21% of Borneo’s landmass) and shows four main distinct distribution areas:

  • Sabah and the north-eastern region of East Kalimantan where P. p. morio occurs
  • The southern and central East Kalimantan area where P. p. morio also occurs
  • The Central Kalimantan and south-western part of West Kalimantan area where P. p. wurmbii occurs
  • The northern part of West Kalimantan and southern part of Sarawak where P. p. pygmaeus is found

The largest area of orangutan distribution in Borneo is found in Central Kalimantan, followed by West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak, and South Kalimantan.

In Sumatra, the modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 17,797 km2.

Data source

Wich SA, Gaveau D, Abram N, Ancrenaz M, Baccini A, et al. (2012) Understanding the mpacts of Land-Use Policies on a Threatened Species: Is There a Future for the Bornean Orang-utan? PLoS ONE 7(11): e49142. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049142

S. A. Wich, I. Singleton, M. G. Nowak, S. S. Utami Atmoko, G. Nisam, S. M. Arif, R. H. Putra, R. Ardi, G. Fredriksson, G. Usher, D. L. A. Gaveau, H. S. Ku?hl, Land-cover changes predict steep declines for the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii). Sci. Adv. 2, e1500789 (2016)

Data quality

The map shows current modelled orang-utan spatial distribution for the year 2013 in Borneo and for the year 2011 in Sumatra. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames.

Data format

The data were provided to GRAS in shapefile format by the author.

Availability of data

GRAS is displaying the data in agreement with the author.

Biodiversity - Tiger Conservation Landscapes

Content

The map is composed by three different datasets:

  • Tiger Conservation Landscapes
  • Tx2 Tiger Conservation Landscapes
  • Terai Arc Landscape Corridors

Tiger Conservation Landscapes (TLCs) are defined as large blocks of connected tiger habitat that can support at least five tigers and where tiger presence had been confirmed in the past 10 years. The dataset was produced by combining data on land cover, tiger occurance and a human influence index.

Tx2 Tiger Conservation Landscapes displays TLCs that could double the wild tiger population through proper conservation and management by 2020.

The Terai Arc Landscape Corridors  dataset displays 9 forest corridors on the Nepalese side of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL). Corridors are defined as existing forests connecting current Royal Bengal tiger meta-populations in Nepal and India.

Data source

Tiger Conservation Landscapes: Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C.J., Wikramanayake, E., Ginsberg, J., Sanderson, E., Seidensticker, J., Forrest, J.L., Bryja, G., Heydlauff, A., Klenzendorf, S., Mills, J, O'Brien, T., Shrestha, M, Simons, R., Songer, M. 2007. “The fate of wild tigers.” BioScience 57 (June 2007): 508-14.

Tx2 Tiger Conservation Landscapes: Wikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Seidensticker, J., Lumpkin, S., Pandav, B., Shrestha, M., Mishra, H., Ballou, J., Johnsingh, A.J.T., Chestin, I., Sunarto, S., Thinley, P., Thapa, K., Jiang, G., Elagupillay, S., Kafley, H., Pradhan, N.M.B., Jigme, K., Teak, S., Cutter, P., Aziz, Md. A., Than, U. 2011. A landscape-based conservation strategy to double the wild tiger population. Conservation Letters, 4 (3):219-227.

Terai Arc Landscape corridors: Wikramanayake, E., M. McNight, E. Dinerstein, A. Joshi, B. Gurung, D. Smith. 2004. Designing a Conservation Landscape for Tigers in Human-Dominated Environments. Conservation Biology (18):839-844.

WWF and RESOLVE. "Tiger Conservation Landscapes." Accessed through Global Forest Watch on November 4th 2016. www.globalforestwatch.org

Data quality

The three datasets referes to the following years:

  • Tiger Conservation Landscapes: 2000
  • Tx2 Tiger Conservation Landscapes: 2011
  • Terai Arc Landscape Corridors: 2014

The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level.

Data format

The data were downloaded from the Global Forest Watch website:

Availability of data

The data are available under a CC BY 4.0.

Carbon Stock - Total Organic Carbon: Land cover map

For determining the different land cover classes, the land cover map of the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry (Direktorat Jenderal Planologi Kehutanan, Kementerian Kehutanan Republik Indonesia) is used. It is based on Landsat 7 ETM and has a resolution of 30 meters.
The Ministry of Forestry land cover map is available at http://webgis.dephut.go.id/ditplanjs/index.html.

Carbon Stock - Total Organic Carbon: Biomass carbon values

Values on biomass carbon in Indonesia were taken from several scientific sources:

  • Lasco, R.D. and Suson, P.D.,. (1999). A Leucaena Leucocephala -based indigenous fallow system in central Philippines: the Naalad system. Intl Tree Crops Journal 10: 161-174.
  • Murdiyarso, D. and Wasrin, U.R.(1995). Estimating land-use change and carbon release from tropical forests conversion using remote sensing technique. J. of Biogeography 22: 715-721.
  • Noordwijk, M., Hairiah, K. & Sitompul, S.M., (2000). Reducing uncertainties in the assessment at national scale of C stock impacts of land-use change. In D.B. Macandog, ed. Proc. IGES/NIES Workshop on GHG Inventories for Asia-Pacific Region, pp. 150-163. Hayama, Japan, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).
  • Donato, D. C., Kauffman, J. B., Murdiyarso, D., Kurnianto, S., Stidham, M. & Kanninen, M. (2011) Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geoscience, 4, 293-297.
  • Prasetyo,L.B., Murdiyarso,D., Rosalina,U, Genya,  S., Tsuruta, H., Okamoto, K., Shigehiro, I., Shingo, U.,. (2000). Analysis of land-use changes and greenhouse gas emission (GHG) using geographical information system (GIS) technologies. Paper presented in the Workshop on Improving Land-use/cover change and greenhouse gas emission biophysical data. Institute Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia. 16 December 2000.
  • Sitompul, SM and Hairiah, K., (2000). Biomass measurement of homegarden. Paper presented at the Workshop on LUCC and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Biophysical Data. Institute Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia. 16 December 2000.
  • Gintings, A.N. (2000). The progress of establishing cinnamon and candlenut demonstration plots in Jambi and their potential to absorb carbon. Paper presented in the Science and Policy Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon and Possible Trading under the CDM. IC-SEA, BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia. 27 February-1 March 2000.
  • Lasco, R.D., Pulhin, F.B. (2004). 8 Carbon budgets of tropical forest ecosystems in Southeast Asia: implications for climate change. In: Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: opportunities with CDM, environmental services and biodiversity. RAP Publication FAO.Nr.  2004/22 http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ae537e/ae537e00.htm
  • IPCC 2006, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories – Volume 4., Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). Hayama : Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
  • Asia Pacific Network of Global Change Network (APN) (2001). Land Use Change and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in Asia. Workshop,  29th January 2001 – 1st February 2001. Kobe, Japan. http://www.apn-gcr.org/resources/archive/files/239d5a2c4d7d386af7aba40b92bbcf51.pdf
  • European Union (2011). Commission decision of 10 June 2010 on guidelines for the calculation of land carbon stocks for the purpose of Annex V to the Directive 2009/2008/EC.Official Journal of the European Union, L 151, 17 June 2010.

Carbon Stock - Total Organic Carbon: Soil map

The Harmonized World Soil Database is used in the version provided by the European Commission Joint Research Centre - European Soil Portal:

Carbon Stock - Total Organic Carbon: Soil carbon values and land use factors

Values on soil carbon and related land use factors were taken from the IPCC 2006:

  • IPCC 2006, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories – Volume 4., Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). Hayama: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

Carbon Stock - Total Biomass Carbon

This carbon map was developed by Ruesch and Gibbs and is a global map of biomass carbon stored in above and below ground living vegetation. It was created using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The authors followed the IPCC GPG Tier-1 method for estimating vegetation carbon stocks using the globally consistent default values provided for above ground biomass (IPCC 2006). They added below ground biomass (root) carbon stocks using the IPCC root to shoot ratios for each vegetation type. Then they converted total living vegetation biomass to carbon stocks using the carbon fraction for each vegetation type (varies between forests, shrublands and grasslands). Maps of continental regions, ecofloristic zones, and frontier forests were combined to determine the spatial distribution of global carbon zones. These data were then gridded and combined with the vegetation map from the Global Land Cover 2000 Project (GLC2000). The resulting global gridded dataset depicts vegetation biomass carbon stocks at at 1 kilometer by 1-kilometer resolution.
Soil carbon stocks are not included in this map.

Social Indices - Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year in cooperation with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide, the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The GHI wants to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger and aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger. GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number that can however be individually displayed in the maps:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient calorie intake)
  • Child underweight: the proportion of children younger than the age of five who are underweight (low weight for age reflecting wasting, stunted growth, or both), which is one indicator of child undernourishment
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children younger than the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate dietary intake and unhealthy environments).

For further information please visit the GHI

Social Indices - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) by the World Bank Group reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2012 for six dimensions of governance:

  • Voice and Accountability
  • Political Stability and Absence of Violence
  • Government Effectiveness
  • Regulatory Quality
  • Rule of Law
  • Control of Corruption

These aggregate indicators can be individually displayed in GRAS Maps. The indicators combine the views of a large number of enterprise, citizen and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. They are based on 32 individual data sources produced by a variety of survey institutes, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private sector firms.

For further information please visit the WGI

Social Indices - Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme. The four tiers are:

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Mean years of schools
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Gross national income (GNI) per capita

The tiers can be individually displayed with their original numerical value in GRAS Maps.

For further information please visit the HDI

Social Indices - Global Slavery Index (GSI)

The Global Slavery Index is run by the Australian NGO Walk Free Foundation. GSI shows the prevalence of population in modern slavery and provides a country ranking of 162 countries. Modern slavery is defined as slavery and slavery-like practices (such as debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale or exploitation of children), human trafficking and forced labour. GSI uses renowned international and national data sources. The Index reflects a weighted combined measure of 3 factors:

1. Estimate prevalence of modern slavery in each country (accounts for 95% in the Index)
2. A measure of the level of human trafficking to and from each country (accounts for 2.5%)
3. A measure of the level of child and early marriage in each country (accounts for 2.5%)

The estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, country by country, is based on two types of information:

  • Secondary source information: published reports from governments, the investiga-tions of non-governmental and international organisations, and journalistic reports across all media (e.g. Stopping Forced Labor Report by ILO / Incidence of Bonded Labor in India by Lal Bahadur Shastri, National Academy of Administration)
  • Random sample surveys in selected countries

For further information please visit the GSI

Social Indices - EPI Agricultural Subsidies (EPI AS)

Agricultural Subsidies is a proxy measure for the degree of environmental pressure exerted by subsidizing agricultural inputs developed within the framework of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) from the University of Yale.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Agricultural Subsidies please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Pesticide Regulation (EPI PR)

Pesticide Regulation assesses the status of countries’ legislation regarding the use of chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Pesticide Regulation also scores the degree to which these countries have fol-lowed through on limiting or outlawing these chemicals.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Pesticide Regulation please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Water Resources (EPI WR)

This dataset was developed by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and is another worthwhile subindicator of the EPI. It represents a combination of environ-mental statistics reported from national ministries along with official statistics from the Or-ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Sta-tistical Division (UNSD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with inputs from the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook and additional expert advice.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Water Resources please visit the EPI

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Drinking Water (UNICEF WA)

Access to Drinking Water measures the proportion of a country’s total population with ac-cess to an “improved drinking water source” as a main source of drinking water. An im-proved drinking water source is defined as a facility or delivery point that protects water from external contamination—particularly fecal contamination. This includes piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected spring; and rainwater collection. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Sanitation (UNICEF WS)

Access to Sanitation measures the percentage of a country’s population that has access to an improved source of sanitation. “Improved” sanitation sources include connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, or ventilated pit latrine. The system is considered “improved” if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and is not public, meaning that it can neither be private or shared. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards

UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards are not a numerical index in the classical meaning. Ratification of the eight core labour standards are regarded as a worthwhile indicator for the assessment of working conditions. However, this information is not considered for the overall social factor calculation. The ratification of UN International Labor Organisation (ILO) Core Labor Standards is displayed within the maps tool as an additional information.

The core labour standards consist of four standards, laid out in eight conventions:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bar-gaining (Convention No. 87 & No. 98)
  • The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour (Convention No. 29 & No. 105)
  • The effective abolition of child labour (Convention No. 138 & No. 182)
  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation (Con-vention No. 100 & No. 111)

For further information please visit ILO

Malaysia

Biodiversity - Intact Forest Landscapes

Content

The Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) are defined as large unbroken expanses of natural ecosystems in the zone of current forest landscapes extent without signs of significant human activity. For the identification of Intact Forest Landscapes the following criteria were used: (1) minimum area of 50,000 hectares; (2) minimum IFL patch width of 10 km; and (3) minimum corridor/appendage width of 2 km. The criteria were chosen to insure that IFL patch core areas are large enough to provide refuge for wide-ranging animal species.
The IFL map shows the boundary between unaltered forest landscapes - where most components, including species and site diversity, dynamics and ecological functions remain intact - and altered or fragmented forests - where some level of timber extraction, species composition change, anthropogenic fragmentation and/or alteration of ecosystem dynamics has taken place.
The IFL map is prepared by the IFL Mapping Team (Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute, Transparent World, and WWF Russia) using Landsat satellite imagery for the year 2000. The latest update was made for year 2014, so the current map shows the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013.

Data source

Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2).

Data quality

The current IFL map shows the the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The first global IFL map was prepared in 2005-2006. It was updated in 2012 and again in 2014.

Data format

The IFL map is provided in ESRI shapefile format and can be downloaded at intactforest.org.

Availability of data

GRAS uses IFL data in agreement with Peter Potapov (IFL mapping team).

Biodiversity - Ramsar Sites

Content

Ramsar Sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".
In 1971 the Convention was established as an intergovernmental environmental agreement in the Iranian city Ramsar. Its mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. The Contracting Parties designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance. Wetlands included in the List acquire a new status at the national level and are recognized by the international community as being of significant value. The Ramsar List is maintained by the Ramsar Secretariat and is updated and extended continuously. Full data submitted by the Parties for each of their Ramsar Sites is maintained in the Ramsar Sites Database and searchable from the Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar Sites are explicitly named in the EU Renewable Energy Directive as being taken into account when identifiying areas not suitable for sustainable biomass production (Directive 2009/28/EC, Nr. 73).

Data source

Ramsar Convention Secretariat: Ramsar Sites Information Service Database, Official Ramsar sites boundaries, December 2013 / Ramsar Sites central geographical coordinates, July 2014

Data quality

The List of Wetlands of International Importance and hence the data stored in the Ramsar Sites Information Service (RSIS) Database is updated continuously. On the RSIS data are available in two forms: Centroids and boundaries. In addition, GRAS received information on Ramsar Sites in some countries from national or international sources. That is why GRAS is displaying a combination of centroids and polygons of the Ramsar Sites coming from either the RSIS or national and international bodies.

Data format

The Ramsar Sites are provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the Ramsar Sites Information Service.

Availability of data

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat does not restrict the use of the geospatial data of Ramsar Sites. However, they recommend that the geospatial data is double-checked with the information sheets of Ramsar Sites.

Biodiversity - Globcover

Content

GlobCover is an ESA initiative which began in 2005 in partnership with JRC, EEA, FAO, UNEP, GOFC-GOLD and IGBP. The aim of the project was to develop a service capable of delivering global composites and land cover maps using as input observations from the 300m MERIS sensor on board the ENVISAT satellite mission.The global land cover map counts 22 land cover classes defined with the United Nations (UN) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS). For GRAS, especially the sustainability relevant land cover classes are interesting, namely grasslands and forested areas with trees higher than five metres and a canopy cover of more than 30%.

Data source

Global Land Cover Product (2005-06), Globcover version 2.2, © ESA 2010 and Université catholique de Louvain.

Data quality

Globcover Land Cover Map is prepared every three years. Following the advice of our partner DLR (German Aerospace Center), we used the Globcover version 2.2 from 2006. The Globcover land cover map from 2009 has shortcomings because the MERIS sensor was damaged and several satellite images were distorted. The Globcover 2006 land cover map has a spatial resolution of 300m.

Data format

Globcover Land cover map is provided as a raster file and can be downloaded at the website of ESA. In order to integrate the data into GRAS, it was transformed into vector file format.

Availability of data

GRAS respects the data policy of ESA and therefore the integration of the Globcover land cover map in GRAS is submitted to ESA for approval.

Biodiversity - Orangutan habitats

Content

The map shows a modelled orangutan spatial distribution for Borneo and Sumatra. The map was prepared based on species occurrence samples as well as contextual layers. The contextual layers included climatic, topographic, soil, above ground carbon stock, land cover and road density maps.

In Borneo, the modelled orangutan distribution map covers 155,106 km2 (21% of Borneo’s landmass) and shows four main distinct distribution areas:

  • Sabah and the north-eastern region of East Kalimantan where P. p. morio occurs
  • The southern and central East Kalimantan area where P. p. morio also occurs
  • The Central Kalimantan and south-western part of West Kalimantan area where P. p. wurmbii occurs
  • The northern part of West Kalimantan and southern part of Sarawak where P. p. pygmaeus is found

The largest area of orangutan distribution in Borneo is found in Central Kalimantan, followed by West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak, and South Kalimantan.

In Sumatra, the modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 17,797 km2.

Data source

Wich SA, Gaveau D, Abram N, Ancrenaz M, Baccini A, et al. (2012) Understanding the mpacts of Land-Use Policies on a Threatened Species: Is There a Future for the Bornean Orang-utan? PLoS ONE 7(11): e49142. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049142

S. A. Wich, I. Singleton, M. G. Nowak, S. S. Utami Atmoko, G. Nisam, S. M. Arif, R. H. Putra, R. Ardi, G. Fredriksson, G. Usher, D. L. A. Gaveau, H. S. Ku?hl, Land-cover changes predict steep declines for the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii). Sci. Adv. 2, e1500789 (2016)

Data quality

The map shows current modelled orang-utan spatial distribution for the year 2013 in Borneo and for the year 2011 in Sumatra. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames.

Data format

The data were provided to GRAS in shapefile format by the author.

Availability of data

GRAS is displaying the data in agreement with the author.

Biodiversity - Tiger Conservation Landscapes

Content

The map is composed by three different datasets:

  • Tiger Conservation Landscapes
  • Tx2 Tiger Conservation Landscapes
  • Terai Arc Landscape Corridors

Tiger Conservation Landscapes (TLCs) are defined as large blocks of connected tiger habitat that can support at least five tigers and where tiger presence had been confirmed in the past 10 years. The dataset was produced by combining data on land cover, tiger occurance and a human influence index.

Tx2 Tiger Conservation Landscapes displays TLCs that could double the wild tiger population through proper conservation and management by 2020.

The Terai Arc Landscape Corridors  dataset displays 9 forest corridors on the Nepalese side of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL). Corridors are defined as existing forests connecting current Royal Bengal tiger meta-populations in Nepal and India.

Data source

Tiger Conservation Landscapes: Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C.J., Wikramanayake, E., Ginsberg, J., Sanderson, E., Seidensticker, J., Forrest, J.L., Bryja, G., Heydlauff, A., Klenzendorf, S., Mills, J, O'Brien, T., Shrestha, M, Simons, R., Songer, M. 2007. “The fate of wild tigers.” BioScience 57 (June 2007): 508-14.

Tx2 Tiger Conservation LandscapesWikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Seidensticker, J., Lumpkin, S., Pandav, B., Shrestha, M., Mishra, H., Ballou, J., Johnsingh, A.J.T., Chestin, I., Sunarto, S., Thinley, P., Thapa, K., Jiang, G., Elagupillay, S., Kafley, H., Pradhan, N.M.B., Jigme, K., Teak, S., Cutter, P., Aziz, Md. A., Than, U. 2011. A landscape-based conservation strategy to double the wild tiger population. Conservation Letters, 4 (3):219-227.

Terai Arc Landscape corridorsWikramanayake, E., M. McNight, E. Dinerstein, A. Joshi, B. Gurung, D. Smith. 2004. Designing a Conservation Landscape for Tigers in Human-Dominated Environments. Conservation Biology (18):839-844.

WWF and RESOLVE. "Tiger Conservation Landscapes." Accessed through Global Forest Watch on November 4th 2016. www.globalforestwatch.org

Data quality

The three datasets referes to the following years:

  • Tiger Conservation Landscapes: 2000
  • Tx2 Tiger Conservation Landscapes: 2011
  • Terai Arc Landscape Corridors: 2014

The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level.

Data format

The data were downloaded from the Global Forest Watch website:

Availability of data

The data are available under a CC BY 4.0.

Carbon Stock - Total Biomass Carbon

This carbon map was developed by Ruesch and Gibbs and is a global map of biomass carbon stored in above and below ground living vegetation. It was created using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The authors followed the IPCC GPG Tier-1 method for estimating vegetation carbon stocks using the globally consistent default values provided for above ground biomass (IPCC 2006). They added below ground biomass (root) carbon stocks using the IPCC root to shoot ratios for each vegetation type. Then they converted total living vegetation biomass to carbon stocks using the carbon fraction for each vegetation type (varies between forests, shrublands and grasslands). Maps of continental regions, ecofloristic zones, and frontier forests were combined to determine the spatial distribution of global carbon zones. These data were then gridded and combined with the vegetation map from the Global Land Cover 2000 Project (GLC2000). The resulting global gridded dataset depicts vegetation biomass carbon stocks at at 1 kilometer by 1-kilometer resolution.
Soil carbon stocks are not included in this map.

Social Indices - Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year in cooperation with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide, the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The GHI wants to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger and aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger. GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number that can however be individually displayed in the maps:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient calorie intake)
  • Child underweight: the proportion of children younger than the age of five who are underweight (low weight for age reflecting wasting, stunted growth, or both), which is one indicator of child undernourishment
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children younger than the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate dietary intake and unhealthy environments).

For further information please visit the GHI

Social Indices - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) by the World Bank Group reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2012 for six dimensions of governance:

  • Voice and Accountability
  • Political Stability and Absence of Violence
  • Government Effectiveness
  • Regulatory Quality
  • Rule of Law
  • Control of Corruption

These aggregate indicators can be individually displayed in GRAS Maps. The indicators combine the views of a large number of enterprise, citizen and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. They are based on 32 individual data sources produced by a variety of survey institutes, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private sector firms.

For further information please visit the WGI

Social Indices - Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme. The four tiers are:

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Mean years of schools
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Gross national income (GNI) per capita

The tiers can be individually displayed with their original numerical value in GRAS Maps.

For further information please visit the HDI

Social Indices - Global Slavery Index (GSI)

The Global Slavery Index is run by the Australian NGO Walk Free Foundation. GSI shows the prevalence of population in modern slavery and provides a country ranking of 162 countries. Modern slavery is defined as slavery and slavery-like practices (such as debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale or exploitation of children), human trafficking and forced labour. GSI uses renowned international and national data sources. The Index reflects a weighted combined measure of 3 factors:

1. Estimate prevalence of modern slavery in each country (accounts for 95% in the Index)
2. A measure of the level of human trafficking to and from each country (accounts for 2.5%)
3. A measure of the level of child and early marriage in each country (accounts for 2.5%)

The estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, country by country, is based on two types of information:

  • Secondary source information: published reports from governments, the investiga-tions of non-governmental and international organisations, and journalistic reports across all media (e.g. Stopping Forced Labor Report by ILO / Incidence of Bonded Labor in India by Lal Bahadur Shastri, National Academy of Administration)
  • Random sample surveys in selected countries

For further information please visit the GSI

Social Indices - EPI Agricultural Subsidies (EPI AS)

Agricultural Subsidies is a proxy measure for the degree of environmental pressure exerted by subsidizing agricultural inputs developed within the framework of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) from the University of Yale.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Agricultural Subsidies please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Pesticide Regulation (EPI PR)

Pesticide Regulation assesses the status of countries’ legislation regarding the use of chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Pesticide Regulation also scores the degree to which these countries have fol-lowed through on limiting or outlawing these chemicals.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Pesticide Regulation please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Water Resources (EPI WR)

This dataset was developed by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and is another worthwhile subindicator of the EPI. It represents a combination of environ-mental statistics reported from national ministries along with official statistics from the Or-ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Sta-tistical Division (UNSD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with inputs from the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook and additional expert advice.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Water Resources please visit the EPI

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Drinking Water (UNICEF WA)

Access to Drinking Water measures the proportion of a country’s total population with ac-cess to an “improved drinking water source” as a main source of drinking water. An im-proved drinking water source is defined as a facility or delivery point that protects water from external contamination—particularly fecal contamination. This includes piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected spring; and rainwater collection. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Sanitation (UNICEF WS)

Access to Sanitation measures the percentage of a country’s population that has access to an improved source of sanitation. “Improved” sanitation sources include connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, or ventilated pit latrine. The system is considered “improved” if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and is not public, meaning that it can neither be private or shared. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards

UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards are not a numerical index in the classical meaning. Ratification of the eight core labour standards are regarded as a worthwhile indicator for the assessment of working conditions. However, this information is not considered for the overall social factor calculation. The ratification of UN International Labor Organisation (ILO) Core Labor Standards is displayed within the maps tool as an additional information.

The core labour standards consist of four standards, laid out in eight conventions:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bar-gaining (Convention No. 87 & No. 98)
  • The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour (Convention No. 29 & No. 105)
  • The effective abolition of child labour (Convention No. 138 & No. 182)
  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation (Con-vention No. 100 & No. 111)

For further information please visit ILO

EU-28

Biodiversity - Intact Forest Landscapes

Content

The Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) are defined as large unbroken expanses of natural ecosystems in the zone of current forest landscapes extent without signs of significant human activity. For the identification of Intact Forest Landscapes the following criteria were used: (1) minimum area of 50,000 hectares; (2) minimum IFL patch width of 10 km; and (3) minimum corridor/appendage width of 2 km. The criteria were chosen to insure that IFL patch core areas are large enough to provide refuge for wide-ranging animal species.
The IFL map shows the boundary between unaltered forest landscapes - where most components, including species and site diversity, dynamics and ecological functions remain intact - and altered or fragmented forests - where some level of timber extraction, species composition change, anthropogenic fragmentation and/or alteration of ecosystem dynamics has taken place.
The IFL map is prepared by the IFL Mapping Team (Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute, Transparent World, and WWF Russia) using Landsat satellite imagery for the year 2000. The latest update was made for year 2014, so the current map shows the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013.

Data source

Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2).

Data quality

The current IFL map shows the the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The first global IFL map was prepared in 2005-2006. It was updated in 2012 and again in 2014.

Data format

The IFL map is provided in ESRI shapefile format and can be downloaded at intactforest.org.

Availability of data

GRAS uses IFL data in agreement with Peter Potapov (IFL mapping team).

Biodiversity - Ramsar sites

Content

Ramsar Sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".
In 1971 the Convention was established as an intergovernmental environmental agreement in the Iranian city Ramsar. Its mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. The Contracting Parties designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance. Wetlands included in the List acquire a new status at the national level and are recognized by the international community as being of significant value. The Ramsar List is maintained by the Ramsar Secretariat and is updated and extended continuously. Full data submitted by the Parties for each of their Ramsar Sites is maintained in the Ramsar Sites Database and searchable from the Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar Sites are explicitly named in the EU Renewable Energy Directive as being taken into account when identifiying areas not suitable for sustainable biomass production (Directive 2009/28/EC, Nr. 73).

Data source

Ramsar Convention Secretariat: Ramsar Sites Information Service Database, Official Ramsar sites boundaries, December 2013 / Ramsar Sites central geographical coordinates, July 2014

Data quality

The List of Wetlands of International Importance and hence the data stored in the Ramsar Sites Information Service (RSIS) Database is updated continuously. On the RSIS data are available in two forms: Centroids and boundaries. In addition, GRAS received information on Ramsar Sites in some countries from national or international sources. That is why GRAS is displaying a combination of centroids and polygons of the Ramsar Sites coming from either the RSIS or national and international bodies.

Data format

The Ramsar Sites are provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the Ramsar Sites Information Service.

Availability of data

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat does not restrict the use of the geospatial data of Ramsar Sites. However, they recommend that the geospatial data is double-checked with the information sheets of Ramsar Sites.

Biodiversity - Nationally Designated Areas (CDDA)

Content

The Common Database on Designated Areas (CDDA) is more commonly known as Nationally Designated Areas. It is a European inventory of protected areas designated by the national authorities of 39 European countries. The inventory began in 1995 under the CORINE programme of the European Commission. It is now maintained for European Environment Agency by the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity and is annually updated through a data request to Eionet countries. The CDDA is the official source of protected area information from European countries to the World Database of Protected Areas (WDPA).
The CDDA mostly contains information on statutory designations the main purpose of which is biodiversity conservation. The CDDA does not contain all information on statutes under sectorial, particularly forestry, legislative and administrative acts and on voluntary, private designations such as those areas protected by conservation trusts. This is mainly due to the difficulty of aggregating this type of information from national to European level. Consequently, national databases have to be checked complementarily in order to get a complete overview of the protected areas in a country. Furthermore, the Natura 2000 database should be checked as well because the CDDA does not reflect the full extent of the Natura 2000 network.

Data source

Nationally designated areas (CDDA) version 12. European Environment Agency, 2014.
Estonia: "Estonian Environmental Register 25.02.2014".
Finland: "©Finnish Environment Institute, 2014".

Data quality

The current dataset of CDDA (version 12) is from November 11, 2014. Data is annually updated through a data request to Eionet countries. Nationally designated areas have clearly defined borders which can be identified at any zoom level.

Data format

CDDA data is provided a.o. in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the website of the European Environment Agency.

Availability of data

GRAS uses the CDDA dataset in agreement with the European Environment Agency.

Biodiversity - Natura 2000

Content

Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union. It is made up of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) designated respectively under the Habitats Directive and Bird Directive. It also includes Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The Natura 2000 sites are selected by Member States and the European Commission following strictly scientific criteria according to the two directives mentioned above. The SPAs are designed directly by each EU Member State, while the SACs follows a more elaborated process: each EU Member State must compile a list of the best wildlife areas containing the habitats and species listed in the Habitat Directive; this list must then be submitted to the European Commission, after which an evaluation and selection process on European level will take place in order to become a Natura 2000 site.   

Data source

The European network of protected sites, version 2012. Directorate-General for Environment, European Commission, 2013.  

Data quality

This dataset was published in 2013 on data from 2012. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames.

Data format

The map of Natura 2000 sites is is provided in shape file format.

Availability of data

Natura 2000 data set can be re-use freely.

Biodiversity - Bundesamt für Naturschutz (Federal Agency for Nature Conservation)

Content

The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz – BfN) is the German government’s scientific authority with responsibility for national and international nature conservation. BfN is one of the government’s departmental research agencies and reports to the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). The implemented maps from the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation are: National parks, nature conservation areas, biosphere reserves, landscape protection areas, nature parks, special protected areas, fauna-flora-habitats, historical forests. All the maps are specific for Germany.

Data source

Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz – BfN), 2015.

Data quality

The maps are from 2013-2015. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The data are not intended for planning purposes.

Data format

The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz – BfN) data are provided in shape file format. For more information, please visit the BfN website.

Availability of data

The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz – BfN) data set can be re-used freely.

Carbon Stock - Total Biomass Carbon

This carbon map was developed by Ruesch and Gibbs and is a global map of biomass carbon stored in above and below ground living vegetation. It was created using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The authors followed the IPCC GPG Tier-1 method for estimating vegetation carbon stocks using the globally consistent default values provided for above ground biomass (IPCC 2006). They added below ground biomass (root) carbon stocks using the IPCC root to shoot ratios for each vegetation type. Then they converted total living vegetation biomass to carbon stocks using the carbon fraction for each vegetation type (varies between forests, shrublands and grasslands). Maps of continental regions, ecofloristic zones, and frontier forests were combined to determine the spatial distribution of global carbon zones. These data were then gridded and combined with the vegetation map from the Global Land Cover 2000 Project (GLC2000). The resulting global gridded dataset depicts vegetation biomass carbon stocks at at 1 kilometer by 1-kilometer resolution.
Soil carbon stocks are not included in this map.

EU28 - GHG values for cultivation on NUTS2 level

Content

The map displays the crop specific GHGvalues for cultivation as reported by the Member States to the EU Commission according to Article 19 (2) of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). The values in g CO2eq/ MJ of biofuels and kg CO2eq/t of dry crop have been collected from the table published by the EU Commission in the biofuel's voluntary schemes section of its website. For those Member States for which no data in g CO2eq/ MJ of biofuels are available from that table, GRAS has integrated the values (marked in GRAS with *) published in the NUTS2 reports of the respective Member States. For those Member States where no data in kg CO2eq/t of crop are available from the table, GRAS has converted the values from g CO2eq/ MJ of biofuels into kg CO2eq/t of dry crop (marked in GRAS with **) based on the standard conversion and allocation factors used in Biograce to derive the default values from the RED. For crops without any default value from the RED (e.g. triticale), only the values in g CO2eq/MJ is displayed as no standard conversion and allocation faactors are available. The values, which are not published in the table or in the Member States' reports are marked as n/a. For Sweden, Romania and Lithuania, the values are provided on NUTS3 level as published in the table and/or in the respective Member States' reports. Despite thorough research and analysis, GRAS takes no liability for the correctness and accuracy of the contents.

Data source

Table published by the EU Commission, NUTS2 reports of the different MS and Biograce.

Data quality

The borders of the areas can be clearly identified on a small scale. The map gets updated according to the publication of new data by the EU Commission and/or MS.

Data format

NUTS2 values are reported for each member state. Values were assigned as shape-file attributes to a political map of the EU-28.

Availability of data

NUTS2 reports are reported by the EU Commission and/or individually by each EU Member State.

Social Indices - Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year in cooperation with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide, the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The GHI wants to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger and aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger. GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number that can however be individually displayed in the maps:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient calorie intake)
  • Child underweight: the proportion of children younger than the age of five who are underweight (low weight for age reflecting wasting, stunted growth, or both), which is one indicator of child undernourishment
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children younger than the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate dietary intake and unhealthy environments).

For further information please visit the GHI

Social Indices - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) by the World Bank Group reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2012 for six dimensions of governance:

  • Voice and Accountability
  • Political Stability and Absence of Violence
  • Government Effectiveness
  • Regulatory Quality
  • Rule of Law
  • Control of Corruption

These aggregate indicators can be individually displayed in GRAS Maps. The indicators combine the views of a large number of enterprise, citizen and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. They are based on 32 individual data sources produced by a variety of survey institutes, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private sector firms.

For further information please visit the WGI

Social Indices - Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme. The four tiers are:

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Mean years of schools
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Gross national income (GNI) per capita

The tiers can be individually displayed with their original numerical value in GRAS Maps.

For further information please visit the HDI

Social Indices - Global Slavery Index (GSI)

The Global Slavery Index is run by the Australian NGO Walk Free Foundation. GSI shows the prevalence of population in modern slavery and provides a country ranking of 162 countries. Modern slavery is defined as slavery and slavery-like practices (such as debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale or exploitation of children), human trafficking and forced labour. GSI uses renowned international and national data sources. The Index reflects a weighted combined measure of 3 factors:

1. Estimate prevalence of modern slavery in each country (accounts for 95% in the Index)
2. A measure of the level of human trafficking to and from each country (accounts for 2.5%)
3. A measure of the level of child and early marriage in each country (accounts for 2.5%)

The estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, country by country, is based on two types of information:

  • Secondary source information: published reports from governments, the investiga-tions of non-governmental and international organisations, and journalistic reports across all media (e.g. Stopping Forced Labor Report by ILO / Incidence of Bonded Labor in India by Lal Bahadur Shastri, National Academy of Administration)
  • Random sample surveys in selected countries

For further information please visit the GSI

Social Indices - EPI Agricultural Subsidies (EPI AS)

Agricultural Subsidies is a proxy measure for the degree of environmental pressure exerted by subsidizing agricultural inputs developed within the framework of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) from the University of Yale.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Agricultural Subsidies please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Pesticide Regulation (EPI PR)

Pesticide Regulation assesses the status of countries’ legislation regarding the use of chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Pesticide Regulation also scores the degree to which these countries have fol-lowed through on limiting or outlawing these chemicals.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Pesticide Regulation please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Water Resources (EPI WR)

This dataset was developed by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and is another worthwhile subindicator of the EPI. It represents a combination of environ-mental statistics reported from national ministries along with official statistics from the Or-ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Sta-tistical Division (UNSD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with inputs from the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook and additional expert advice.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Water Resources please visit the EPI

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Drinking Water (UNICEF WA)

Access to Drinking Water measures the proportion of a country’s total population with ac-cess to an “improved drinking water source” as a main source of drinking water. An im-proved drinking water source is defined as a facility or delivery point that protects water from external contamination—particularly fecal contamination. This includes piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected spring; and rainwater collection. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Sanitation (UNICEF WS)

Access to Sanitation measures the percentage of a country’s population that has access to an improved source of sanitation. “Improved” sanitation sources include connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, or ventilated pit latrine. The system is considered “improved” if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and is not public, meaning that it can neither be private or shared. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards

UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards are not a numerical index in the classical meaning. Ratification of the eight core labour standards are regarded as a worthwhile indicator for the assessment of working conditions. However, this information is not considered for the overall social factor calculation. The ratification of UN International Labor Organisation (ILO) Core Labor Standards is displayed within the maps tool as an additional information.

The core labour standards consist of four standards, laid out in eight conventions:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bar-gaining (Convention No. 87 & No. 98)
  • The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour (Convention No. 29 & No. 105)
  • The effective abolition of child labour (Convention No. 138 & No. 182)
  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation (Con-vention No. 100 & No. 111)

For further information please visit ILO

Paraguay

Biodiversity - Intact Forest Landscapes

Content

The Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) are defined as large unbroken expanses of natural ecosystems in the zone of current forest landscapes extent without signs of significant human activity. For the identification of Intact Forest Landscapes the following criteria were used: (1) minimum area of 50,000 hectares; (2) minimum IFL patch width of 10 km; and (3) minimum corridor/appendage width of 2 km. The criteria were chosen to insure that IFL patch core areas are large enough to provide refuge for wide-ranging animal species.
The IFL map shows the boundary between unaltered forest landscapes - where most components, including species and site diversity, dynamics and ecological functions remain intact - and altered or fragmented forests - where some level of timber extraction, species composition change, anthropogenic fragmentation and/or alteration of ecosystem dynamics has taken place.
The IFL map is prepared by the IFL Mapping Team (Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute, Transparent World, and WWF Russia) using Landsat satellite imagery for the year 2000. The latest update was made for year 2014, so the current map shows the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013.

Data source

Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2).

Data quality

The current IFL map shows the the extent of Intact Forest Landscapes by the end of year 2013. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames. The first global IFL map was prepared in 2005-2006. It was updated in 2012 and again in 2014.

Data format

The IFL map is provided in ESRI shapefile format and can be downloaded at intactforest.org.

Availability of data

GRAS uses IFL data in agreement with Peter Potapov (IFL mapping team).

Biodiversity - Ramsar Sites

Content

Ramsar Sites are wetlands as defined in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance: "wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".
In 1971 the Convention was established as an intergovernmental environmental agreement in the Iranian city Ramsar. Its mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. The Contracting Parties designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance. Wetlands included in the List acquire a new status at the national level and are recognized by the international community as being of significant value. The Ramsar List is maintained by the Ramsar Secretariat and is updated and extended continuously. Full data submitted by the Parties for each of their Ramsar Sites is maintained in the Ramsar Sites Database and searchable from the Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar Sites are explicitly named in the EU Renewable Energy Directive as being taken into account when identifiying areas not suitable for sustainable biomass production (Directive 2009/28/EC, Nr. 73).

Data source

Ramsar Convention Secretariat: Ramsar Sites Information Service Database, Official Ramsar sites boundaries, December 2013 / Ramsar Sites central geographical coordinates, July 2014

Data quality

The List of Wetlands of International Importance and hence the data stored in the Ramsar Sites Information Service (RSIS) Database is updated continuously. On the RSIS data are available in two forms: Centroids and boundaries. In addition, GRAS received information on Ramsar Sites in some countries from national or international sources. That is why GRAS is displaying a combination of centroids and polygons of the Ramsar Sites coming from either the RSIS or national and international bodies.

Data format

The Ramsar Sites are provided in shapefile format and can be downloaded on the Ramsar Sites Information Service.

Availability of data

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat does not restrict the use of the geospatial data of Ramsar Sites. However, they recommend that the geospatial data is double-checked with the information sheets of Ramsar Sites.

Biodiversity - Public and Private Protected Areas

Content

Guyra Paraguay is one of the most important NGOs in Paraguay working for the defense and protection of biological diversity. The implemented maps from Guyra Paraguay are: Public Protected Areas and Private Protected Areas.

Data source

Guyra Paraguay, 2016.

Data quality

The maps are from 2011. The borders of the areas can be clearly identified at any zoom level. The map gets updated in certain time frames.

Data format

The Guyra Paraguay data are provided in shape file format. For more information, please visit the Guyra Paraguay website.

Availability of data

The Guyra Paraguay data set can be re-used freely.

Carbon Stock - Total Biomass Carbon

This carbon map was developed by Ruesch and Gibbs and is a global map of biomass carbon stored in above and below ground living vegetation. It was created using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The authors followed the IPCC GPG Tier-1 method for estimating vegetation carbon stocks using the globally consistent default values provided for above ground biomass (IPCC 2006). They added below ground biomass (root) carbon stocks using the IPCC root to shoot ratios for each vegetation type. Then they converted total living vegetation biomass to carbon stocks using the carbon fraction for each vegetation type (varies between forests, shrublands and grasslands). Maps of continental regions, ecofloristic zones, and frontier forests were combined to determine the spatial distribution of global carbon zones. These data were then gridded and combined with the vegetation map from the Global Land Cover 2000 Project (GLC2000). The resulting global gridded dataset depicts vegetation biomass carbon stocks at at 1 kilometer by 1-kilometer resolution.
Soil carbon stocks are not included in this map.

Social Indices - Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year in cooperation with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide, the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The GHI wants to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger and aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger. GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number that can however be individually displayed in the maps:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient calorie intake)
  • Child underweight: the proportion of children younger than the age of five who are underweight (low weight for age reflecting wasting, stunted growth, or both), which is one indicator of child undernourishment
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children younger than the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate dietary intake and unhealthy environments).

For further information please visit the GHI

Social Indices - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) by the World Bank Group reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over the period 1996–2012 for six dimensions of governance:

  • Voice and Accountability
  • Political Stability and Absence of Violence
  • Government Effectiveness
  • Regulatory Quality
  • Rule of Law
  • Control of Corruption

These aggregate indicators can be individually displayed in GRAS Maps. The indicators combine the views of a large number of enterprise, citizen and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. They are based on 32 individual data sources produced by a variety of survey institutes, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private sector firms.

For further information please visit the WGI

Social Indices - Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme. The four tiers are:

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Mean years of schools
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Gross national income (GNI) per capita

The tiers can be individually displayed with their original numerical value in GRAS Maps.

For further information please visit the HDI

Social Indices - Global Slavery Index (GSI)

The Global Slavery Index is run by the Australian NGO Walk Free Foundation. GSI shows the prevalence of population in modern slavery and provides a country ranking of 162 countries. Modern slavery is defined as slavery and slavery-like practices (such as debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale or exploitation of children), human trafficking and forced labour. GSI uses renowned international and national data sources. The Index reflects a weighted combined measure of 3 factors:

1. Estimate prevalence of modern slavery in each country (accounts for 95% in the Index)
2. A measure of the level of human trafficking to and from each country (accounts for 2.5%)
3. A measure of the level of child and early marriage in each country (accounts for 2.5%)

The estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, country by country, is based on two types of information:

  • Secondary source information: published reports from governments, the investiga-tions of non-governmental and international organisations, and journalistic reports across all media (e.g. Stopping Forced Labor Report by ILO / Incidence of Bonded Labor in India by Lal Bahadur Shastri, National Academy of Administration)
  • Random sample surveys in selected countries

For further information please visit the GSI

Social Indices - EPI Agricultural Subsidies (EPI AS)

Agricultural Subsidies is a proxy measure for the degree of environmental pressure exerted by subsidizing agricultural inputs developed within the framework of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) from the University of Yale.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Agricultural Subsidies please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Pesticide Regulation (EPI PR)

Pesticide Regulation assesses the status of countries’ legislation regarding the use of chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Pesticide Regulation also scores the degree to which these countries have fol-lowed through on limiting or outlawing these chemicals.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Pesticide Regulation please visit the EPI

Social Indices - EPI Water Resources (EPI WR)

This dataset was developed by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and is another worthwhile subindicator of the EPI. It represents a combination of environ-mental statistics reported from national ministries along with official statistics from the Or-ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Sta-tistical Division (UNSD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with inputs from the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook and additional expert advice.

For further information about the overall EPI scores and its subindicator Water Resources please visit the EPI

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Drinking Water (UNICEF WA)

Access to Drinking Water measures the proportion of a country’s total population with ac-cess to an “improved drinking water source” as a main source of drinking water. An im-proved drinking water source is defined as a facility or delivery point that protects water from external contamination—particularly fecal contamination. This includes piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected spring; and rainwater collection. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UNICEF Access to Sanitation (UNICEF WS)

Access to Sanitation measures the percentage of a country’s population that has access to an improved source of sanitation. “Improved” sanitation sources include connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, or ventilated pit latrine. The system is considered “improved” if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and is not public, meaning that it can neither be private or shared. The data originates from the 2012 WHO/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

For further information about the data and the JMP, please visit the according UNICEF website.

Social Indices - UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards

UN International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Core Labor Standards are not a numerical index in the classical meaning. Ratification of the eight core labour standards are regarded as a worthwhile indicator for the assessment of working conditions. However, this information is not considered for the overall social factor calculation. The ratification of UN International Labor Organisation (ILO) Core Labor Standards is displayed within the maps tool as an additional information.

The core labour standards consist of four standards, laid out in eight conventions:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bar-gaining (Convention No. 87 & No. 98)
  • The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour (Convention No. 29 & No. 105)
  • The effective abolition of child labour (Convention No. 138 & No. 182)
  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation (Con-vention No. 100 & No. 111)

For further information please visit ILO

Close